Hwan of Ts'i as "upright but not artful."
Tsz-lu remarked, "When Duke Hwan caused his brother Kiu to be put to death, Shau Hwuh committed suicide, but Kwan Chung did not. I should say he was not a man who had much good-will in him—eh?"
The Master replied, "When Duke Hwan held a great gathering of the feudal lords, dispensing with military equipage, it was owing to Kwan Chung's energy that such an event was brought about. Match such good-will as that—match it if you can."
Tsz-kung then spoke up. "But was not Kwan Chung wanting in good-will? He could not give up his life when Duke Hwan caused his brother to be put to death. Besides, he became the duke's counsellor."
"And in acting as his counsellor put him at the head of all the feudal lords," said the Master, "and unified and reformed the whole empire; and the people, even to this day, reap benefit from what he did. Had it not been for him we should have been going about with locks unkempt and buttoning our jackets (like barbarians) on the left. Would you suppose that he should show the same sort of attachment as exists between a poor yokel and his one wife—that he would asphyxiate himself in some sewer, leaving no one the wiser?"
Kung-shuh Wan's steward, who became the high officer Sien, went up accompanied by Wan to the prince's hall of audience.
When Confucius heard of this he remarked, "He may well be esteemed a
The Master having made some reference to the lawless ways of Duke Ling of Wei, Ki K'ang said to him, "If he be like that, how is it he does not ruin his position?"
Confucius answered, "The Chung-shuh, Yu, is charged with the entertainment of visitors and strangers; the priest T'o has charge of the ancestral temple; and Wang-sun Kiá has the control of the army and its divisions:—with men such as those, how should he come to ruin?"
He once remarked, "He who is unblushing in his words will with difficulty substantiate them."
Ch'in Shing had slain Duke Kien. Hearing of this, Confucius, after performing his ablutions, went to Court and announced the news to Duke Ngai, saying, "Ch'in Hang has slain his prince. May I request that you proceed against him?"
"Inform the Chiefs of the Three Families," said the duke.
Soliloquizing upon this, Confucius said, "Since he uses me to back his ministers,  I did not dare not to announce the matter to him; and now he says, 'Inform the Three Chiefs.'"
He went to the Three Chiefs and informed them, but nothing could be done. Whereupon again he said, "Since he uses me to back his ministers, I did not dare not to announce the matter."
Tsz-lu was questioning him as to how he should serve his prince.
"Deceive him not, but reprove him," he answered.
"The minds of superior men," he observed, "trend upwards; those of inferior men trend downwards."
Again, "Students of old fixed their eyes upon themselves: now they learn with their eyes upon others."
Kü Pih-yuh despatched a man with a message to Confucius. Confucius gave him a seat, and among other inquiries he asked, "How is your master managing?" "My master," he replied, "has a great wish to be seldom at fault, and as yet he cannot manage it."
"What a messenger!" exclaimed he admiringly, when the man went out.
"What a messenger!"
"When not occupying the office," was a remark of his, "devise not the policy."
The Learned Tsang used to say, "The thoughts of the 'superior man' do not wander from his own office."
"Superior men," said the Master, "are modest in their words, profuse in their deeds."
Again, "There are three attainments of the superior man which are beyond me—the being sympathetic without anxiety, wise without scepticism, brave without fear."
"Sir," said Tsz-kung, "that is what you say of yourself."
Whenever Tsz-kung drew comparisons from others, the Master would say, "Ah, how wise and great you must have become! Now I have no time to do that."
Again, "My great concern is, not that men do not know me, but that they cannot."
Again, "If a man refrain from making preparations against his being imposed upon, and from counting upon others' want of good faith towards him, while he is foremost to perceive what is passing—surely that is a wise and good man."
Wi-shang Mau accosted Confucius, saying, "Kiu, how comes it that you manage to go perching and roosting in this way? Is it not because you show yourself so smart a speaker, now?"
"I should not dare do that," said Confucius. "Tis that I am sick of men's immovableness and deafness to reason."
"In a well-bred horse," said he, "what one admires is not its speed, but its good points."
Some one asked, "What say you of the remark, 'Requite enmity with kindness'?"
"How then," he answered, "would you requite kindness? Requite enmity with straightforwardness, and kindness with kindness."
"Ah! no one knows me!" he once exclaimed.
"Sir," said Tsz-kung, "how comes it to pass that no one knows you?"
"While I murmur not against Heaven," continued the Master, "nor cavil at men; while I stoop to learn and aspire to penetrate into things that are high; yet 'tis Heaven alone knows what I am."
Liáu, a kinsman of the duke, having laid a complaint against Tsz-lu before Ki K'ang, an officer came to Confucius to inform him of the fact, and he added, "My lord is certainly having his mind poisoned by his kinsman Liáu, but through my influence perhaps we may yet manage to see him exposed in the marketplace or the Court."
"If right principles are to have their course, it is so destined," said the Master; "if they are not to have their course, it is so destined. What can Liáu do against Destiny?"
"There are worthy men," said the Master, "fleeing from the world; some from their district; some from the sight of men's looks; some from the language they hear."
"The men who have risen from their posts and withdrawn in this manner are seven in number."
Tsz-lu, having lodged overnight in Shih-mun, was accosted by the gate-keeper in the morning. "Where from?" he asked. "From Confucius," Tsz-lu responded. "That is the man," said he, "who knows things are not up to the mark, and is making some ado about them, is it not?"
When the Master was in Wei, he was once pounding on the musical stone, when a man with a basket of straw crossed his threshold, and exclaimed, "Ah, there is a heart that feels! Aye, drub the stone!" After which he added, "How vulgar! how he hammers away on one note!—and no one knows him, and he gives up, and all is over!
Be it deep, our skirts we'll raise to the waist,
—Or shallow, then up to the knee,'"
"What determination!" said the Master. "Yet it was not hard to do."
Tsz-chang once said to him, "In the 'Book of the Annals' it is stated that while Káu-tsung was in the Mourning Shed he spent the three years without speaking. What is meant by that?"
"Why must you name Káu-tsung?" said the Master. "It was so with all other ancient sovereigns: when one of them died, the heads of every department agreed between themselves that they should give ear for three years to the Prime Minister."
"When their betters love the Rules, then the folk are easy tools," was a saying of the Master.
Tsz-lu having asked what made a "superior man," he answered,
"Self-culture, with a view to becoming seriously-minded."
"Nothing more than that?" said he.
"Self-culture with a view to the greater satisfaction of others," added the Master.
"That, and yet no more?"
"Self-culture with a view to the greater satisfaction of all the clans and classes," he again added. "Self-culture for the sake of all—a result that, that would almost put Yau and Shun into the shade!"
To Yuen Jang,  who was sitting waiting for him in a squatting (disrespectful) posture, the Master delivered himself as follows: "The man who in his youth could show no humility or subordination, who in his prime misses his opportunity, and who when old age comes upon him will not die—that man is a miscreant." And he tapped him on the shin with his staff.
Some one asked about his attendant—a youth from the village of Kiueh—whether he was one who improved. He replied, "I note that he seats himself in the places reserved for his betters, and that when he is walking he keeps abreast with his seniors. He is not one of those who care for improvement: he wants to be a man all at once."
[Footnote 30: Confucius had now retired from office, and this incident occurred only two years before his death.]
[Footnote 31: It was a habit with the Chinese, when a number were out walking together, for the eldest to go first, the others pairing off according to their age. It was a custom much older than the time of Confucius.]
Read More of the Analects